Extraction technologies for medicinal and aromatic plants






ICS-UNIDO is supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs © United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology, 2008 Earth, Environmental and Marine Sciences and Technologies International Centre for Science and High Technology ICS-UNIDO, AREA Science Park Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste, Italy Tel. : +39-040-9228108 Fax: +39-040-9228136 E-mail: environment@ics. It Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Scientific Editors: Sukhdev Swami Handa Suman Preet Singh Khanuja Gennaro Longo Dev Dutt Rakesh INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR SCIENCE AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY Trieste, 2008 Contributors Chapter 1 An Overview of Extraction Techniques for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Sukhdev Swami Handa Senior Specialist, Industrial Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Earth, Environmental and Marine Sciences and Technologies, ICS-UNIDO, AREA Science Park, Bldg.

L2, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste, Italy Chapter 2 Role of Process Simulation to Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Maurizio Fermeglia DICAMP-CASLAB, University of Trieste and Scientific Consultant for Process Simulation, ICS-UNIDO, AREA Science Park, Bldg. L2, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste, Italy Chapter 3 Maceration, Percolation and Infusion Techniques for the Extraction of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Janardan Singh Scientist E II, Botany and Pharmacognosy, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O.

Overview
, Chapter 5 Decoction and Hot Continuous Extraction Techniques Sudeep Tandon and Shailendra Rane Scientist EI, Chemical Engineer, Process and Product Development Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O. , CONTRIBUTORS Chapter 6 Aqueous Alcoholic Extraction of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants by Fermentation Chander Kant Katiyar Director, Herbal Research, Ranbaxy Research Labs, R&D-II, Plot 20, Sector 18, Udyog Vihar Industrial Area, Gurgaon, India Chapter 7 Distillation Technology for Essential Oils Sudeep Tandon Scientist EI, Chemical Engineer, Process and Product Development Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O. , Chapter 8 Microdistillation, Thermomicrodistillation and Molecular Distillation Techniques Vishwas Govind Pangarkar Professor, University Institute of Chemical Technology, Nathalal Parekh Marg Manunga (East) Mumbai 400 019, India Chapter 9 Solid Phase Micro-extraction and Headspace Trapping Extraction Rama Kant Harlalka Director, Nishant Aromas 424, Milan Industrial Estate, Cotton Green Park, Mumbai 200 033, India Chapter 10 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Fundamentals and Applications Alberto Bertucco1 and Giada Franceschin2 1 Professor, Dipartimento di Principi ed Impianti di Ingegneria Chimica “I.

Sorgato”, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova, Italy 2 DIPIC - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova, Italy Chapter 11 Process-scale HPLC for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Madan Mohan Gupta1 and Karuna Shanker2 1 Head, Analytical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O. , 2 Scientist, Analytical Chemistry Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O. , Chapter 12 Flash Chromatography and Low Pressure Chromatographic Techniques for Separation of Phytomolecules Sunil Kumar Chattopadhyay Scientist F, Process and Product Development Division, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O.

, 4 EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Chapter 13 Counter-current Chromatography Santosh Kumar Srivastava Scientist E II, Phytochemistry, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P O. , Chapter 14 Quality Control of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and their Extracted Products by HPLC and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Karan Vasisht Professor of Pharmacognosy, University Institute of Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India 5 EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Preface Medicinal plants are the richest bioresource of for traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic. Aromatic plants are a source of fragrances, flavors, cosmeceuticals, health beverages and chemical terpenes.

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are traded as such in bulk from many developing countries for further value addition in developed countries. The first step in the value addition of MAP bioresources is the production of herbal drug preparations (i. extracts), using a variety of methods from simple traditional technologies to advanced extraction techniques.

Extraction (as the term is pharmaceutically used) is the separation of medicinally active portions of plant (and) tissues using selective solvents through standard procedures. Such extraction techniques separate the soluble plant metabolites and leave behind the insoluble cellular marc. The products so obtained from plants are relatively complex mixtures of metabolites, in liquid or semisolid state or (after removing the solvent) in dry powder form, and are intended for or external use.

These include classes of preparations known as decoctions, infusions, fluid extracts, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extracts or powdered extracts. Such preparations have been popularly called galenicals, named after Galen, the second century Greek physician. The purpose of standardized extraction procedures for crude (medicinal plant parts) is to attain the therapeutically desired portions and to eliminate unwanted material by treatment with a selective solvent known as menstruum.




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